Professor and Director
Ph.D. State University of New York-Stony Brook, 1988
M.S. State University of New York-Stony Brook, 1984
(Marine Environmental Science)
B.A. State University of New York-Binghamton, 1983
(Biology & Geology)
348 Manter Hall
My main goals are to understand the linkages between individual- and population-level responses to environmental stress and to use such understanding to improve ecological risk assessment and environmental management. Most of my work has involved aquatic invertebrates, and in particular animals that live in and feed on sediment since this is where many of the most harmful chemicals entering the environment accumulate.
My research activities focus on linking modeling and empirical approaches for studying ecological processes and are at the interface
of quantitative ecology and environmental management. I am particularly interested in developing and applying models that integrate
across levels of biological organization and that can appropriately capture the complexity of such systems. A very central question
is to determine how much complexity is needed in the models and how to communicate this effectively to various stakeholders. This
research requires a multidisciplinary approach, and I regularly collaborate with researchers in other disciplines including
chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and the social sciences.
I have been participating as work package leader in a European Union Initial Training Network on ‘Mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals’ (CREAM) http://cream-itn.eu/), with 12 partner organizations across Europe. The overall aims of CREAM were to: 1) Formulate and test guidance for Good Modeling Practice that ensures transparent and reliable decision support for chemical risk assessment; 2) Develop a suite of well-tested and validated mechanistic ecological effect models for a range of organisms and ecosystems relevant for chemical risk assessments; and 3) Provide world-class training for the next generation of modelers, emphasizing transparency and rigorous model evaluation as core elements of models for decision support. The project was a huge success and has, not only moved the science forward substantially, but has measurably impacted the application of ecological models in the European regulatory arena.
Publications (to July 2014)
*Bradshaw C, Kapustka L, Barnthouse L, Brown J, Ciffroy P, Forbes V, Geras’kin S, Kautsky U, Bréchignac F. 2014. Using an ecosystem approach to complement protection schemes based on organism-level endpoints. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 136: 98-104.
*Meli M, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2014. Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics: a modelling approach. Environ Toxicol Chem. 33: 1508-1516.
*Galic N, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecological models in ecotoxicology and ecological risk assessment: An introduction to the special section. Environ Toxicol Chem. 33: 1446-1448.
*Hunka A, Meli M, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU: What factors and groups influence policy changes? Journal of Risk Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2014.913663
*Hamda N, Forbes VE, Stark J, Laskowski R. 2014. Stochastic density dependent matrix model for extrapolating individual-level effects of chemicals to the population: Case study on effects of Cd on Folsomia candida. Ecol Model. 280: 53-64.
*Meli M, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE, Groeneveld J, Grimm V. 2014. Two pairs of eyes are better than one: Combining individual-based and matrix models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Ecol Model. 280: 40-52.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2014. Ecotoxicology. In: eLS 2014, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester http://www.els.net/ [DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003245.pub2] Ecotoxicology
*Calow P, Forbes VE. 2013. Making the relationship between risk assessment and risk management more intimate. Environ Sci Technol.47: 8095-8096.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2013. Developing predictive systems models to address complexity and relevance for ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 9: e75-e80.
*Hunka A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2013. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with non-experts. Integr Environ Assess Manag. DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1426.
*Dai L, Syberg K, Banta G, Selck H, Forbes VE. 2013. Effects, uptake and depuration kinetics of silver- and copper oxide nanoparticles in a marine deposit feeder, Macoma balthica. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 1: 760-767.
*Meli M, Auclerc A, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE, Grimm V. 2013 Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: an individual-based model of springtails. Ecol Model 250: 338-351.
*Hunka A, Meli M, Thit A, Palmqvist A, Thorbek P, Forbes VE. 2013. Stakeholders’ perspectives on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides – challenges and opportunities. Risk Analysis. 33: 68-79.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2012. Promises and problems for the new paradigm for risk assessment and an alternative approach involving predictive systems models. Environ Toxicol Chem. 31: 2663-2671.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2012. Use of the ecosystem services concept in ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 9: 269-275.
*Dai L, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2012. Fate and effects of acetyl cedrene in sediments inhabited by the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta. Environ Toxicol Chem. 31: 2639-2646.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2012. Ecotoxicology. In: Sourcebook in Theoretical Ecology; Hastings A, Gross L. (eds), University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
*Galic N, Schmolke A, Forbes VE, Baveco H, van den Brink P. 2012. The role of ecological models in linking ecological risk assessment to ecosystem services in agroecosystems. Sci Tot Environ 415: 93-100.
* Nienstedt K, Brock T, van Wensem J, Montforts M, Hart A, Hardy A, Aagaard A, Alix A, Boesten J, Bopp SK, Brown C, Capri E, Forbes VE, Köpp H, Liess M, Luttik R, Maltby L, Sousa P, Streissl F. 2012. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Sci Tot Environ 415: 31-38.
*Pang C, Selck H, Misra SK, Berhanu D, Dybowska A, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2011. Effects of sediment-associated copper to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum: a comparison of Cu added in aqueous form or as nano- and micro-CuO particles. Aquat Toxicol 106-107: 114-122.
*Cong Y, Banta GT, Selck H, Berhanu D, Valsami-Jones E, Forbes VE. 2011. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Aquat Toxicol 105: 403-411.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Grimm V, Hayashi TI, Jager T, Katholm A, Palmqvist A, Pastorok R, Salvito D, Sibly RM, Spromberg J, Stark J, Stillman RA. 2011. Adding value to ecological risk assessment with population modeling. Human Ecol Risk Assess 17:287-299.
*Cong Y, Pang C, Dai L, Banta G, Selck H, Forbes VE. 2011. Importance of characterizing nanoparticles before conducting toxicity tests. Integr Environ Assess Manag 7(3): 502-503.
Breitholtz M, Lundström E, Dahl U, Forbes VE. 2010. Improving the value of standard toxicity test data in REACH. Chapter 6, pp 85-98, In: Regulating Chemical Risks: European and Global Challenges. Eriksson J, Gilek M, Rudén C, (eds), Springer, Dordrecht.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2010. Ecological risk assessment should be value-relevant but not value-biased. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6: 784-785.
*Forbes VE, Olsen M, Palmqvist A, Calow P. 2010. Environmentally sensitive life-cycle traits have low elasticity: implications for theory and practice. Ecol Appl.20: 1449-1455.
*Ellegaard-Petersen L, Selck H, Prieme A, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2010. Investigation of the fate and effects of acetyl cedrene on Capitella teleta and sediment bacterial community. Ecotoxicology. 19: 1046-1058.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2010. Contaminant effects on population demographics. Pp. 293-297, In: MC Newman (ed). Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
*Nabe-Nielsen J, Sibly R, Forchhammer MC, Forbes VE, Topping C. 2010. The effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations. PLoS ONE 5(1): e8932, doi:10.137/journal.pone.0008932.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Grimm V, Hayashi T, Jager T, Palmqvist A, Pastorok R, Salvito D, Sibly R, Spromberg J, Stark J, Stillman RA. 2010. Integrating population modeling into ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag.6: 191-193
Thorbek P, Forbes V, Heimbach F, Hommen U, Thulke H-H, Van den Brink PJ, Wogram J, Grimm V, editors. 2010. Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future. Pensacola and Boca Raton (FL): Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and CRC Press.
Forbes VE. 2010. The role of ecological modelling in risk assessments seen from an academic’s point of view. In: Thorbek P, Forbes V, Heimbach F, Hommen U, Thulke H-H, Van den Brink P, Wogram J, Grimm V, editors. Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future. Pensacola and Boca Raton (FL, USA): Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and CRC Press.
*Ramskov T, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2009. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Environ Toxicol Chem.28: 2695-2705
*Bach L, Dahllöf I, Forbes VE. 2009. The amphipod Orchomenella pinguis – a potential bioindicator for contamination in the Arctic. Mar Pollut Bull. 58: 1664-1670.
Topping CJ, Dalkvist T, Forbes VE, Grimm V, Sibly RM. 2009. The potential for the use of agent-based models in ecotoxicology, pp. 205-235, In: Ecotoxicology Modeling, Emerging Topics in Ecotoxicology: Principles, Approaches and Perspectives; J Devillers (ed), Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0197-2_8
*Grimm V, Ashauer R, Forbes V, Hommen U, Preuss TG, Schmidt A, van den Brink PJ , Wogram J, Thorbek P. 2009. CREAM: A European project on mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 16: 614-617, DOI 10.1007/s11356-009-0228-z
*Dalkvist T, Topping CJ, Forbes VE. 2009. Population-level effects of pesticide-induced chronic effects on individuals depend more on ecology than toxicology. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 72: 1663-1672.
*Sibly RM, Nabe-Nielsen J, Forchhammer MC, Forbes VE, Topping CJ. 2009. The effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a Danish landscape. BMC Ecology. 9:18, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-9-18.
*Pedersen S, Selck H, Salvito D, Forbes VE. 2009. Effects of the polycyclic musk, HHCB, on individual- and population-level endpoints in Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 72: 1190-1199.
*Forbes VE, Hommen U, Thorbek P, Heimbach F, Van den Brink PJ, Wogram J, Thulke H-H, Grimm V. 2009. Ecological models in support of regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: developing a strategy for the future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 5: 167-172.
*Preuss TG, Hommen U, Alix A, Ashauer R, van den Brink P, Chapman P, Ducrot V, Forbes VE, Grimm V, Schäfer D, Streissl F, Thorbek P. 2009. Mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals (MEMoRisk) – a new SETAC-Europe Advisory Group. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 16: 250-252.
*Ramskov T, Forbes VE. 2008. Life history and population dynamics of the opportunistic polychaete Capitella sp. I in relation to sediment organic matter. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 369: 181-192
*Forbes VE, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2008. Effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on fecundity, egg hatchability and juvenile growth of Marisa cornuarietis. Environ Toxicol Chem. 27:2332-2340.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Sibly RM. 2008. The extrapolation problem and how population modeling can help. Environ Toxicol Chem. 27:1987-1994.
*Hjorth M, Forbes VE, Dahllöf I. 2008. Plankton stress responses from PAH exposure and nutrient enrichment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 363:121-130
Forbes VE, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2008. Response from Forbes et al. to Oehlmann et al. Ecotox Environ Saf. 69:580-581.
Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2008. Demographic effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene, on two sibling species of the polychaete Capitella capitata. In: Demographic Toxicity: Methods in Ecological Risk Assessment, HR Akçakaya, JD Stark, TS Bridges (eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 200-212.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2008. Ecotoxicology: not just wildlife toxicology. In: Introduction to Toxicology, H Greim, R Snyder (eds), Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 194-203.
*Syberg K, Engell-Kofoed AE, Pedersen H, Cedergreen N, Forbes VE. 2008. Mixture toxicity of three toxicants with similar and dissimilar modes of action to Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 69: 428-436.
*Palmqvist A, Rasmussen LJ, Forbes VE. 2008. Relative impact of coexposure compared to single-substance exposure on the biotransformation and toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene in the marine polychaete Capitella s. I. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 375-386.
Wentsel R, Beyer N, Forbes V, Maund S, Pastorok R. 2008. A framework for population-level ecological risk assessment. In. LW Barnthouse, WR Munns, Jr, MT Sorensen (eds), Population-Level Ecological Risk Assessment, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 211-238.
De Zwart D, Warne-Lorscheider A, Forbes VE, Posthuma L, Peijnenburg W, van de Meent D. 2008. Matrix and media extrapolation. In: Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals, KR Solomon, TCM Brock, D de Zwart, SD Dyer, L Posthuma, SM Richards, H Sanderson, PK Sibley, PJ van den Brink (eds), CRC, Boca Raton FL, USA, pp 33-74.
Forbes VE, Calow P, Selck H. 2007. Chemical regulation and environmental risk assessment under REACH (in Danish). pp. 349-363, In: Grundbog i Planlægning til SAMBAS, K. Aagaard, A. Jensen (eds)., Forlaget Samfundslitteratur, Roskilde University, DK
*Forbes VE, Selck H, Palmqvist A, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, Pounds N, Thompson R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2007. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part I: Intra- and inter-laboratory variability in test endpoints. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 66: 309-318.
*Forbes VE, Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, van der Hoeven N, Caspers N. 2007. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: Toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 66: 319-325.
*Widarto TH, Krogh PH, Forbes VE. 2007. Nonylphenol stimulates fecundity but not population growth rate (l) of Folsomia candida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 67: 369-377.
*Burton GA, Green A, Baudo R, Forbes V, Nguyen LTH, Janssen C, Kukkonen J, Leppanen M, Maltby L, Soares A, Kapo K, Smith P, Dunning J. 2007. Characterizing sediment acid volatile sulfide concentrations in European streams. Environ Toxicol Chem. 26: 1-12.
*Boesten JJTI, Köpp H, Adriaanse PI, Brock TCM, Forbes VE. 2007. Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides. Ecotox Environ Safety 66: 291-308.
*Hjorth M, Vester J, Henriksen P, Forbes V, Dahllöf I. 2007. Functional and structural responses of marine plankton food web to pyrene contamination. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338: 61-70.
*Palmqvist A, Rasmussen LJ, Forbes VE. 2006. Influence of biotransformation on trophic transfer of the PAH, fluoranthene. Aquat. Toxicol. 80: 309-319.
*Forbes VE, Calow P (eds). 2006. Special feature on ecology in a cost-benefit society. . Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2: 154 - 199.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2006. Ecology in a cost-benefit society: the issues. Integr Environ Assess and Manag. 2: 154-155.
*Forbes VE, Palmqvist A, Bach L. 2006. The use and misuse of biomarkers in ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem. 25:272-280.
*Aufderheide J, Warbritton R, Pounds N, File-Emperador S, Staples C, Caspers N, Forbes VE. 2006. Effects of husbandry parameters on the life-history traits of the apple snail, Marisa cornuarietis: Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and population density. Invert Biol. 125: 9-20.
*Selck H, Aufderheide J, Pounds N, Staples C, Caspers N, Forbes VE. 2006. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Invert Biol. 125: 106-116.
*Hjorth M, Dahllöf I, Forbes VE. 2006. Effects on the function of three trophic levels in marine plankton communities under stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione. Aquat Toxicol. 77:105-115.
*Forbes VE, Cold A. 2005. Effects of the pyrethroid, esfenvalerate, on life-cycle traits and population dynamics of Chironomus riparius – importance of exposure scenario. Environ Toxicol Chem. 24: 78-86.
*Bach L, Palmqvist A, Rasmussen LJ, Forbes VE. 2005. Differences in PAH tolerance between Capitella species: underlying biochemical mechanisms. Aquat Toxicol. 74: 307-319.
*Selck H, Granberg ME, Forbes VE. 2005. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Mar Environ Res. 59: 19-46.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2005. Ecotoxicology. Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London, UK, 8 p.
*Forbes VE, Calow P 2004. Systematic approach to weight of evidence in sediment quality assessment: challenges and opportunities. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management. 7: 339-350.
*Li B, Bisgaard HC, Forbes VE. 2004. Identification and expression of two novel cytochrome P450 genes, belonging to CYP4 and a new CYP331 family, in the polychaete Capitella capitata sp.I. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 325: 510-517.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2004. Science takes a back seat in chemicals policy? Cefic Research and Science Progress Newsletter, February 26.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2004. Valuing ecology in ecological valuation. SETAC Globe 5: 26-27.
*Cold A, Forbes VE. 2004. Consequences of a short pulse of pesticide exposure for survival and reproduction of Gammarus pulex. Aquatic Toxicology. 67: 287-299.
*Selck H, Forbes VE. 2004. The relative importance of water and diet for uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Mar Environ Res. 57:261-279.
*Widarto TH, Holmstrup M, Forbes VE. 2004. The influence of nonylphenol on the life-history of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: linking effects from the individual- to the population-level. Ecotox Environ Safety 58: 147-159.
*Forbes VE, Sibly RM, Linke-Gamenick I. 2003. Joint effects of population density and toxicant exposure on population dynamics of Capitella sp. I (Polychaeta). Ecol Appl. 13: 1094-1103.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2003. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. In. RM Sibly, J Hone, TH Clutton-Brock (eds). Wildlife Population Growth Rates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 270-284.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2003. Contaminant effects on population demographics. In. MC Newman, MA Unger (eds). Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, 2nd edn. CRC/Lewis LLC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 221-224.
*Calow P, Forbes VE. 2003. Does ecotoxicology inform ecological risk assessment? Environmental Science and Technology 37:146A-151A.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2003. The UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution gives risk assessment a vote of no confidence. SETAC Globe. 4:30-32.
*Larsen DK, Wagner I, Gustavson K, Forbes VE, Lund TL. 2003. Long-term effect of Sea-Nine on natural coastal phytoplankton communities assessed by pollution induced community tolerance. Aquatic Toxicology. 62: 35-44.
*Palmqvist A, Selck H, Rasmussen LJ, Forbes VE. 2003. Biotransformation and genotoxicity of fluoranthene in the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella sp. I. Environ Toxicol Chem.22:2977-2985.
*Selck H, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2003b. Biotransformation of dissolved and sediment-bound fluoranthene in the polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Environ Toxicol Chem. 22: 2364-2374.
*Selck H, Palmqvist A, Forbes VE. 2003a. Uptake, depuration and toxicity of dissolved and sediment-bound fluoranthene in the polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Environ Toxicol Chem. 22: 2354-2363.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Species sensitivity distributions revisited: a critical appraisal. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment (HERA) 8: 473-492.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Applying weight of evidence in retrospective ecological risk assessment when quantitative data are limited. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 8: 1625-1640.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Phil Trans Roy Soc Series B 357: 1299-1306.
Forbes VE. 2002. Resource allocation in asexual invertebrates. In: R.N. Hughes (ed). Progress in Asexual Propagation and Reproductive Strategies. John Wiley, Oxford.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Extrapolation in ecological risk assessment – balancing pragmatism and precaution in chemical controls legislation. BioScience 52: 249-257.
Forbes VE. 2002. Comparative hazard assessment of insecticides. BioScience 52: 214-215.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2002. Sensitivity distributions – why species selection matters. SETAC Globe, 3: 22-23.
*Batley GE, Burton GA, Chapman PM, Forbes VE. 2002. Uncertainties in sediment quality weight of evidence (WOE) assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 8: 1517-1547.
*Browne RA, Møller V, Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 2002. Estimating genetic and environmental components of variance using sexual and clonal Artemia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 267: 107-119.
*Burton GA Jr, Batley GE, Chapman PM, Forbes VE, Schlekat CE, Smith EP, den Besten PJ, Bailer J, Reynoldson T, Green AS, Dwyer RL, Berti WR. 2002. A weight-of-evidence framework for assessing sediment (or other) contamination: improving certainty in the decision-making process. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 8: 1675-1696.
*Selck H, Riemann B, Christoffersen K, Forbes VE, Gustavson K, Hansen BH, Jacobsen JA, Kusk OA, Petersen S. 2002. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field. Ecotox Environ Safety 52: 97-112.
*Forbes VE, Calow P, Sibly RM. 2001. Are current species extrapolation models a good basis for ecological risk assessment? Environ Toxicol Chem 20 (2): 442-447.
*Forbes VE, Sibly RM, Calow P. 2001. Toxicant impacts on density-limited populations: a critical review of theory, practice and results. Ecol Appl 11: 1249-1257.
*Forbes VE, Andreassen MSH, Christensen L. 2001. Metabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene, by the polychaete, Capitella capitata species I. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(5): 1012-1021.
Forbes VE. 2001. Practical limitations of prescribing stress as an anti-aging treatment – response to S. Rattan. Invited Commentary, BELLE Newsletter 9: 6-7.
*Jensen A, Forbes VE. 2001. Interclonal variation in the acute and delayed toxicity of cadmium to the European prosobranch gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray). Arch Environ Contam Toxciol 40(2): 230-235.
*Jensen A, Forbes VE, Parker ED Jr. 2001. Variation in cadmium uptake, feeding rate, and life-history effects in the gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum: linking toxicant effects on individuals to the population level. Environ Toxicol Chem 20: 2503-2513.
*Mendez MN, Linke-Gamenick I, Forbes VE, Baird DJ. 2001. Sediment processing in Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae): strain-specific differences and effects of the organic toxicant fluoranthene. Mar Biol 138:311-319.
Maltby L, Kedwards TJ, Forbes VE, Grasman K, Kammenga JE, Munns WR, Jr, Ringwood AH, Weis JS, Wood SN. 2001. Linking individual-level responses and population-level consequences. In, DJ Baird and GA Burton, Jr (eds). Ecological Variability: Separating Natural from Anthropogenic Causes of Ecosystem Impairment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, USA, pp 27-82.
*Forbes VE. 2000. Is hormesis an evolutionary expectation? Funct Ecol 14: 12-24.
Forbes VE. 2000. Invited book review of RH Burdon, 1999, Genes and the Environment, Published in Ecotoxicology 9:225-226.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 2000. Role of risk assessment in pollution management: Examples from the Malacca Straits. In Towards Sustainable Management of the Straits of Malacca. M Shariff, FM Yusoff, N Gopinath, HM Ibrahim, RA Nik Mustapha (eds), pp. 779-788. Malacca Straits Research and Development Center (MASDEC), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
Forbes VE. 2000. Are our hormones being disrupted? Invited book review of S Krimsky, 1999, Hormonal Chaos: The Scientific and Social Origins of the Environmental Endocrine Hypothesis. Published in BioScience 50: 1018-1021.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 2000. Malacca Straits: Refined Risk Assessment. MP-EAS Technical Report No. 23/PEMSEA Technical Report Nr.1;GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in the East Asian Seas, Quezon City, Philippines.
*Linke-Gamenick I, Vismann B, Forbes VE. 2000. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on survival and metabolism in different sibling species of the Capitella capitata complex. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 194: 169-177.
*Linke-Gamenick I, Forbes VE, Méndez MN. 2000. Effects of chronic fluoranthene exposure on sibling species of Capitella with different development modes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 203: 191-203.
*Mendez MN, Linke-Gamenick I, Forbes VE. 2000. Variability in reproductive mode and larval development within the Capitella capitata species complex. Invert Reprod Devel 38: 131-142.
*Sibly RM, Hansen FT, Forbes VE. 2000. Confidence intervals for population growth rate of organisms with two-stage life histories. Oikos 88: 335-340.
Forbes VE (ed). 1999. Stress in Ecological Systems: Invited Feature. Ecol Appl 9(2): 429-503.
*Forbes VE. 1999. Studying stress in ecological systems: implications for ecological risk assessment and risk management. Ecol Appl 9(2): 429-430.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 1999. Is the per capita rate of increase a good measure of population-level effects in ecotoxicology? Environ Toxicol Chem 18(7): 1544-1556. [among the top 100 most-cited papers in Environ Toxicol Chem between 1982-2012]
Forbes VE (ed). 1999. Genetics and Ecotoxicology. Taylor & Francis, Washington DC. 231 p.
Forbes VE. 1999. Genetics and ecotoxicology – insights from the interface. Chapter 1, In: VE Forbes (ed) Genetics and Ecotoxicology. Taylor & Francis, Washington DC, pp 1-8.
Forbes VE, Møller V, Browne RA, Depledge MH. 1999. The influence of reproductive mode and its genetic consequences on the responses of populations to toxicants: a case study. Chapter 10, In: VE Forbes (ed), Genetics and Ecotoxicology. Taylor & Francis, Washington DC, pp 187-206.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 1999. Manual on Risk Assessment of Subregional Sea Areas: A Practical Guide for Tropical Ecosystems. MPP-EAS Technical Report 21, 88 p., GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in the East Asian Seas, Quezon City, Philippines.
*Hansen FT, Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1999. Effects of 4-n-nonylphenol on life-history traits and population dynamics of a polychaete. Ecol Appl 9(2): 482-495.
*Hansen FT, Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1999. Using elasticity analysis of demographic models to link toxicant effects on individuals to the population level: an example. Funct Ecol 13(2): 157-162.
*Linke-Gamenick I, Forbes VE, Sibly RM. 1999. Density-dependent effects of a toxicant on life-history traits and population dynamics of a capitellid polychaete. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 184: 139-148.
*Parker ED Jr, Forbes VE, Nielsen SL, Ritter C, Barata C, Baird DJ, Admiraal W, Levin L, Loeschcke V, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Høgh-Jensen H, Calow P. 1999. Stress in ecological systems. Oikos 86:179-184.
*Selck H, Decho AW, Forbes VE. 1999. Effects of chronic metal exposure and sediment organic matter for the digestive absorption efficiency of cadmium by the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella species I. Environ Toxicol Chem 18(6): 1289-1297.
*Forbes VE. 1998. Sources and implications of variability in sensitivity to chemicals for ecotoxicological risk assessment. Archives of Toxicology Suppl 20: 407-418.
*Forbes VE, Calow P. 1998. Costs of living with contaminants: implications for assessing low-level exposures. Comments on Toxicology 6(4): 255-270.
*Forbes TL, Forbes VE, Giessing A, Hansen R, Kure L. 1998. Relative role of pore water versus ingested sediment in bioavailability of organic contaminants in marine sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 17(12): 2453-2462.
*Calow P, Forbes VE. 1998. How do physiological responses to stress translate into ecological and evolutionary processes? Comp Biochem Physiol A 120:11-16.
*Selck H, Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1998. The toxicity and toxicokinetics of cadmium in Capitella sp. I: relative importance of water and sediment as routes of cadmium uptake. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 164: 167-178.
*Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1997. Dietary absorption of sediment-bound fluoranthene by a deposit-feeding gastropod using the 14C:51Cr dual-labeling method. Environ Toxicol Chem 16: 1002-1009.
*Forbes VE, Parker ED Jr, Calow P. 1997. Are there advantages of having sex in novel environments? Oikos 80: 411-416.
Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1997. Ecotoxicology in Theory and Practice. French Edition, Chapman and Hall, London.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 1997. Responses of aquatic organisms to pollutant stress: theoretical and practical implications. In: K Bijlsma, V Loeschcke (eds.), Stress, Adaptation and Evolution, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp. 25-41.
*Calow P, Forbes VE. 1997. Science and subjectivity in the practice of ecological risk assessment. Environmental Management 21(6): 805-808.
*Calow P, Sibly R, Forbes VE. 1997. Risk assessment on the basis of simplified population dynamics’ scenarios. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1983-1989.
Calow P, Forbes VE. 1997. Malacca Straits: Initial Risk Assessment. GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pollution in the East Asian Seas, Quezon City, Philippines.
*Foss HE, Forbes VE. 1997. Effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene on growth rate and nucleic acid composition of Capitella sp. I. Mar Biol129: 489-497.
*Holmer M, Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1997. The impact of the polychaete (Capitella sp. I) on microbial activity in an organic-rich marine sediment contaminated with the polyaromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene. Mar Biol 128: 679-688.
*Jacobsen R, Forbes VE. 1997. Clonal variation in life-history traits and feeding rates in the gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum: performance across a salinity gradient. Funct Ecol 11: 260-267.
*Madsen SD, Forbes TL, Forbes VE. 1997. Particle-mixing by the polychaete Capitella sp. I: coupling fate and effect of a particle-bound organic contaminant (fluoranthene) in a marine sediment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 147: 129-142.
*Forbes VE. 1996. Chemical stress and genetic variability in invertebrates. Toxicology and Ecotoxicology News 3(5): 136-141.
*Forbes VE, Forbes TL, Holmer M. 1996. Inducible metabolism of fluoranthene by the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella sp. I. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 132:63-70.
Forbes VE 1996. Invited book review of DW Sutcliffe (ed), Water Quality and Stress Indicators in Marine and Freshwater Systems: Linking Levels of Organisation. Published in Quart Rev Biol 71: 140.
Forbes VE, Calow P. 1996. Costs of living with contaminants: implications for assessing low-level exposures. Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE). Vol. 4, No. 3, March 1996.
Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1996. Environmental stress and the distribution of traits within populations. In: DJ Baird, L Maltby, PW Greig-Smith, PET Douben (eds), ECOtoxicology: Ecological Dimensions, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 71-86.
*Jacobsen R, Forbes VE, Skovgaard O. 1996. Genetic population structure of the prosobranch snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) in Denmark using PCR-RAPD fingerprints. Proc R Soc Lond B 263: 1065-1070.
*Møller V, Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1996. Population responses to acute and chronic cadmium exposure in sexual and asexual estuarine gastropods. Ecotoxicology. 5: 313-326.
*Forbes VE, Møller V, Depledge MH. 1995. Intrapopulation variability in sublethal response to heavy metal stress in sexual and asexual gastropod populations. Funct Ecol 9(3): 477-484.
Forbes VE. 1995. Rapporteur’s report on quantitative indices for ecosystem health assessment. In: DJ Rapport, CL Gaudet, P Calow (eds), Evaluating and Monitoring the Health of Large-Scale Ecosystems, pp. 219-222, NATO ASI Series, Springer, Berlin.
Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1995. Protecting marine biodiversity - goals and obstacles. Açoreana, Suppl1995: 1-7.
Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1994. Ecotoxicology in Theory and Practice. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 241p.
*Forbes TL, Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1994. Individual physiological responses to environmental hypoxia and organic enrichment: implications for early soft-bottom community succession. J Mar Res 52: 1081-1100.
Kaas H, Møhlenberg F, Forbes VE, Petersen B. 1994. Bioavailability of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds entering the Kattegat from the Skagerrak and Baltic Sea. Report to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen. (Danish).
*Møller V, Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1994. The influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae). Environ Toxicol Chem 13(9): 1519-1524.
Ravn H, Jahanshahi F, Forbes VE, Andary C Christophersen C. 1994. Phenolic compounds in the marine plant Zostera marina L. Proceedings from the XVI International Conference, Groupe Polyphenols, July 1992, Lisabon, Portugal.
*Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1993. Testing versus research in ecotoxicology: response to Baird and Calow. Funct Ecol 7: 509-510.
*Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1993. Ecotoxicology and the power of clones. Funct Ecol 7: 511-512.
*Forbes TL, Forbes VE. 1993. A critique of the use of distribution-based extrapolation methods in ecotoxicology. Funct Ecol 7(3): 249-254.
*Depledge MH, Forbes TL, Forbes VE. 1993. Evaluation of cadmium, copper, zinc and iron concentrations and tissue distributions in the benthic crab, Dorippe granulata (De Haan, 1841) from Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong. Environ Pollut 81(1): 15-19.
*Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1992. Cadmium effects on the carbon and energy balance of mudsnails. Mar Biol 113: 263-269.
*Forbes VE, Depledge MH. 1992. Predicting population response to pollutants: the significance of sex. Funct Ecol 6: 376-381.
Forbes VE. 1992. The effects of pesticides on estuarine soft-bottom ecosystems. Report to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, January 1992, Copenhagen, 62 pp.
Forbes VE. 1992. Adverse effects of pesticides on nontarget systems. Report to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Nr. 6, July 1992, Copenhagen, 60 pp.
Depledge MH, Forbes TL, Forbes VE, Brandt-Hansen S. 1992. Trace metal distribution and the positive relationship between tissue hydration and trace metal concentration in the Indo-Pacific brachyuran Dorippe Granulata (De Haan, 1841). In: B Morton (ed), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China III, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.
*Forbes VE. 1991. Response of Hydrobia ventrosa (Montagu) to environmental stress: effects of salinity fluctuations and cadmium exposure on growth. Funct Ecol 5(5): 642‑648.
*Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1990. The role of sediment type in growth and fecundity of mud snails (Hydrobiidae). Oecologia. 83:53‑61.
Forbes VE, Forbes TL. 1990. The combined and separate effects of hypoxia and cadmium exposure on the energetics of an opportunistic polychaete. II. Degrowth. Eos.
Forbes TL, Forbes VE. 1990. The combined and separate effects of hypoxia and cadmium exposure on the energetics of an opportunistic polychaete. I. Growth. Eos.
*Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1989. The role of sediment particle size in the nutritional energetics of a surface deposit‑feeder. I. Ingestion and absorption of sedimentary microalgae by Hydrobia truncata (Vanatta). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 126: 181‑192.
*Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1989. The role of sediment particle size in the nutritional energetics of a surface deposit‑feeder. II. Energetic cost measured as 14C loss from uniformly‑labeled Hydrobia truncata (Vanatta). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 126: 193‑202.
Kofoed LH, Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1989. Time‑dependent absorption in deposit feeders. In: GR Lopez, GL Taghon, JS Levinton (eds), The Ecology of Marine Deposit Feeders, pp. 129‑148. Springer‑Verlag, New York.
*Davis GM, Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1988. Species status of northeastern American Hydrobia (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia): ecology, morphology, and molecular genetics. Proc Acad Nat Sci Phil 140(2): 191‑246.
Forbes VE, Lopez GR. 1987. Changes in ingestion, absorption, and defecation as a function of sediment type in a deposit‑feeding gastropod. Amer Zool 27(4): 650.
*Forbes VE, Lopez GR 1986. Changes in feeding and crawling rates of Hydrobia truncata (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae) in response to sedimentary chlorophyll‑a and recently egested sediment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 33: 287‑294.